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BOOK 6 - HISTORY OF THE LOMBARDS
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BOOK 1 - HISTORY OF THE LOMBARDS
BOOK 2 - HISTORY OF THE LOMBARDS
BOOK 3 - HISTORY OF THE LOMBARDS
BOOK 4 - HISTORY OF THE LOMBARDS
BOOK 5 - HISTORY OF THE LOMBARDS
BOOK 6 - HISTORY OF THE LOMBARDS
VALENTINA DORIA CRIVELLI VISCONTI - THE PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICIA

Book 6



Chapter I.

While these things were occurring among the Langobards across the Po, Romuald, duke of the Beneventines after he had collected a great multitude of an army, attacked and captured Tarentum (Taranto) and in like manner Brundisium (Brindisi) and subjugated to his dominion all that very extensive region which surrounds them. [1] His wife Theuderata, too, built at the same time, a church in honor of the blessed apostle Peter outside the walls of the city of Beneventum and in that place she established a convent of many nuns.

[1] This probably refers to the "heel of Italy," the land around Otranto, which now passed under the Langobard sway (Hodgkin,
VI, 335).


Chapter II.

Romuald, too, after he had governed the dukedom sixteen years was withdrawn from this life. After him his son Grimuald ruled the people of the Samnites [1] three years. Wigilinda, a sister of Cunincpert and daughter of king Perctarit was united to him in marriage. When Grimuald also died, Gisulf his brother was made duke [2] and ruled over Beneventum seventeen years. Winiperga was married to him and bore him Romuald. About these times, when a great solitude existed for a number of years past in the stronghold of Cassinum (Monte Cassino) where the holy body of the most blessed Benedict reposes, there came Franks from the regions of the Celmanici (Cenomannici) [3] and of the Aurelianenses, [4] and "while they pretended to keep a vigil by the venerable body they bore away the bones of the reverend father and also of the revered Scolastica his sister, and carried them to their own country where two monasteries were built, one in honor of each, that is, of the blessed Benedict and of St. Scolastica. But it is certain that that venerable mouth, sweeter than all nectar, and the eyes beholding ever heavenly things, and the other members too have remained to us, although decayed.[5] For only the body of our Lord alone did not see corruption; but the bodies of all the saints have been subjected to corruption, to be restored afterwards to eternal glory, with the exception of those which by divine miracles are kept without blemish.

[1] Thus were the Beneventines called (IV, 44, 46, supra).
[2] His mother Theuderata governed the dukedom during his minority (Waitz).
[3] Inhabitants of Le Mans.
[4] Inhabitants of Orleans.
[5] A long controversy between the French and Italian Benedictine monks has arisen from this passage, as to the genuineness of the relics of St. Benedict (Waitz).


Chapter III.

But when Rodoald indeed, who as we said before, [1] held the dukedom at Forum Julii, was absent from that city, Ansfrit from the fortress of Reunia (Ragogna) [2] swept through his dukedom without the consent of the king. Rodoald, when he learned this, fled into Istria and thence came by ship through Ravenna to Ticinum to king Cunincpert. Ansfrit indeed, not content to rule the dukedom of the Friulans, but rebelling against Cunincpert besides, attempted to usurp his sovereignty. But he was seized in Verona and brought to the king, his eyes were torn out and he was cast into banishment. After these things Ado, the brother of Rodoald, governed the Friulan dukedom a year and seven months under the name of caretaker.[3]

[1] V, 24 supra.
[2] About thirty miles west of Cividale (Hodgkin, VI, 328, note l).
[3] 'Loci servator'. The only instance of this title during- the Langobard period. Later it frequently occurs (Pabst, 460, note). There is no date for these events except that they occurred under Cunincpert, 688—700 (Hodgkin, VI, 328, note 3). By these occurrences the dukedom of Friuli, which had been semi-independent, seems to have been placed directly under the power of the king (Hartmann, 11, l, 267).


Chapter IV.

While these things occurred in Italy, a heresy arose at Constantinople which asserted that there was one will and mode of action in our Lord Jesus Christ. Georgius [1] the patriarch of Constantinople, Macharius, Pyrrus, Paul and Peter stirred up this heresy. Wherefore the emperor Constantine [2] caused to be assembled a hundred and fifty bishops [3] among whom were also the legates of the holy Roman Church sent by Pope Agatho - John the Deacon and John the bishop of Portus (Porto) [4] – and they all condemned this heresy. [5] At that hour so many spider webs fell in the midst of the people that they were all astonished, and by this it was signified that the uncleanesses of heretical depravity were driven away. And Georgius the patriarch indeed was rebuked, [6] the others, however, who persisted in their defense were visited by the penalty of excommunication. At this time Damianus, bishop of the church of Ticinum [7] composed in the name of Mansuetus archbishop of Mediolanum (Milan) an epistle upon this question, quite useful to correct belief, which in the aforesaid synod, won no ordinary approbation. For the correct and true belief is this, that as there are in our Lord Jesus Christ two natures, that is of God and of man, so also there may be believed to be two wills or modes of action. Will you hear what there is of the Deity in him? He says, "I and my Father are one." [8] Will you hear what there is of humanity? "My Father is greater than I." [9] Behold him sleeping in the ship according to his human nature! Behold his divinity when the evangelist says: "Then he arose and rebuked the winds and the sea and there was a great calm !" [10] This Sixth General Synod was celebrated at Constantinople and recorded in the Greek language at the time of Pope Agatho, and the emperor Constantine conducted it while remaining within the enclosures of his palace.

[1] This is a mistake. Georgius was used by the emperor as an instrument of reconciliation (Hartmann, II, l, 259). It was the former patriarchs, Sergius,.Pyrrus, Paul and Peter, who stirred up the heresy, and Macharius, bishop of Antioch, supported it (p. 260).
[2] See V, 30, supra. He was also called Pogonatus.
[3] Paul erroneously places the time of this general council (A.D.680) in the reign of Cunincpert, which began 688 (Jacobi, 56).
[4] At the mouth of the Tiber.
[5] We have seen (V, 6, note, szipra) that the so-called Monothelete heresy had succeeded the controversy regarding the Three Chapters. Four successive patriarchs of Constantinople had approved the Monothelete doctrine, but the church in the west was united against it, and the emperor, desirous of a reconciliation, issued an invitation to the Pope to send deputies to a council. Pope Agatho accordingly dispatched three legates and three bishops to a conference at Constantinople, which became the Sixth Ecumenical Council. It lasted from November, 680, to September, 681. Macharius, patriarch of Antioch, undertook to prove that the dogma of " one theandric energy " was in harmony with the decisions of the Fourth and Fifth Councils, but the genuineness of some of his quotations was denied and the relevancy of others disputed. Gregory, patriarch of Constantinople, formally announced his adhesion to the cause of the Pope, who insisted that there were two wills in Christ. The decrees of Pope Agatho and the Western Synod were ratified, Macharius was deposed and the upholders of the Monothelete heresy were condemned, including Honorius, former pope of Rome (Hodgkin, VI, 345, 346),
[6] A mistake. See note above.
[7] At this time Damianus was only a presbyter (Waltz).
[8] John x. 30.
[9] John xiv. 28.
[10] Matt. viii. 26.


Chapter V.

In these times during the eighth indiction (A.D. 680) the moon suffered an eclipse; also an eclipse of the sun occurred at almost the same time on the fifth day before the Nones of May [1] about the tenth hour of the day. And presently there followed a very severe pestilence for three months, that is, in July, August and September, and so great was the multitude of those dying that even parents with their children and brothers with their sisters were placed on biers two by two and conducted to their tombs at the city of Rome. And in like manner too this pestilence also depopulated Ticinum so that all citizens fled to the mountain ranges and to other places and grass and bushes grew in the market place and throughout the streets of the city. And then it visibly appeared to many that a good and a bad angel proceeded by night through the city and as many times as, upon command of the good angel, the bad angel, who appeared to carry a hunting spear in his hand, knocked at the door of each house with the spear, so many men perished from that house on the following day. Then it was said to a certain man by revelation that the pestilence itself would not cease before an altar of St. Sebastian the martyr was placed in the church of the blessed Peter which is called "Ad Vincula." And it was done, and after the remains of St. Sebastian the martyr had been carried from the city of Rome, presently the altar was set up in the aforesaid church and the pestilence itself ceased.[2]

[1] May 2nd. Pagi says that the solar eclipse occurred in 680 and the other in 681 (Giansevero).
[2] The historians of Pavia declare that the bishop St. Damianus begged from the Roman pontiff the remains of the holy martyr and placed them in the church of St. Peter ad Vincula (Waitz).


Chapter VI.

While king Cunincpert, indeed, after these things was taking counsel in the city of Ticinum with his master of horse, which in their language is called "marpahis," [1] in what way he might deprive Aldo and Grauso of life, suddenly in the window near which they were standing sat a fly of the largest kind which when Cunincpert attempted to strike with his knife to kill it, he only cut off its foot. While Aldo and Grauso indeed, in ignorance of the evil design, were coming to the palace, when they had drawn near the church of the holy martyr Romanus which is situated near the palace, suddenly a certain lame man with one foot cut off came in their way who said to them that Cunincpert was going to kill them if they should go on to him. When they heard this they were seized with great fear and fled behind the altar of that church. Presently it was announced to king Cunincpert that Aldo and Grauso had taken refuge in the church of the blessed martyr Romanus. Then Cunincpert began to accuse his master of horse asking why he had to betray his design. His master of horse thus answered him: "My lord king, you know that after we conferred about these things I did not go out of your presence and how could I have said this to any one?" Then the king sent to Aldo and Grauso, asking them why they had taken refuge in the holy place. And they answering said: "Because it was reported to us that our lord the king wished to kill us." Again the king sent to them, seeking to know who he was who had given them the report, and he sent them word that unless they would report to him who had told them, they could not find favor with him. Then they sent word to the king as it had occurred, saying that a lame man had met them upon the way who had one foot cut off and used a wooden leg up to the knee, and that this man had been the one who told them they would be killed. Then the king understood that the fly whose foot he had cut off had been a bad spirit and that it had betrayed his secret designs. And straightway he took Aldo and Grauso on his word of honor from that church, pardoned their fault and afterwards held them as faithful subjects.

[1] II, 9 supra.



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